Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a mental illness, characterized by emotional instability.
What is it?
Individuals with this disorder have difficulties with impulse control, maintaining relationships, self-image and identity, and may show "black or white" thinking. Self-injury is a common occurrence with this disorder. In addition, BPD is often complicated by other psychiatric conditions, such as eating disorders, residual Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), depression, anxiety disorders, and presenting risk behaviors.
Mini-Psych School videos
|Volatile Emotions - Bipolar and other mood disorders (2011)||The Ups And Downs of Bipolar Disorders (2009)|
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Symptoms of BPD
Individuals with BPD may exhibit extreme bouts of anger, depression or crippling anxiety. They may be associated with episodes of self-injury, nonlethal suicide behaviors and substance abuse. Individuals may have frequent changes in long-term goals, careers, friendships, gender identity, sexual behaviors and values. Some individuals with BPD view themselves as unworthy; they may feel misunderstood, bored, and empty; their sensitivity to other's judgement is frequently managed in an adversarial way.
Who is affected?
Symptoms of BPD usually first occur during adolescence or young adulthood. One to three percent of the general population is affected and women are three times more likely to be diagnosed than men. BPD accounts for 20% of psychiatric hospital admissions
Causes of BPD
There is no single factor that causes BDP. However, both environmental and genetic factors are believed to play a role in the development of the symptoms. Research findings tend to show that many individuals with BPD report a previous history of abuse, neglect, or separation as young children and stressful events during adolescence or adulthood. However, many people with BPD haven't been through any abuse, neglect or extreme stress.
Treatments of BPD
Most BPD patients are treated with behavioral therapy, medication, or a combination of the two. Group and individual psychotherapies are partially effective for many BPD individuals. Dialectical behavioral therapy, (DBT) which focuses on an exchange and negotiation between the therapist and patient, has been found to significantly reduce self-injury and suicidal behavior in BPD individuals. Medications such as anti-depressants and mood stabilizers may be used to treat symptoms such as depressive episodes or volatile emotional outbursts. Antipsychotics may also be used to treat distortions in thinking and behavioral activation.
The word PRAISE is commonly used to remember some of the BPD features:
P - Paranoid ideas
R - Relationship instability
A - Angry outbursts, abandonment fears
I - Impulsive behaviors
S - Suicidal behaviors
E - Emptiness
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